Minggu, 30 Juni 2013


NPM     : 12212867
A.     Artikel Relative Pronoun
As soon as two pressure cookers crammed with shrapnel killed three innocent bystanders and wounded scores more near the Boston Marathon’s final stretch on Monday, the hunt for a terror suspect was on. Right now, police are combing through Watertown, Mass., in hopes of finding the second of two brothers from Chechnya suspected of carrying out the attack, but not before several knee-jerk, false alarms triggered by Reddit and an information-hungry media led to several other “suspects” being wrongly ID’d. How could this happen? Here, a rundown of the wrongfully accused:

1. “The Saudi national”
Age: 21
On Monday, in the immediate frenzy of the explosions, the New York Post
boldly trumpeted that a “Saudi national who suffered shrapnel wounds” had been identified as “a suspect in the Boston Marathon bombing.” Yes, a 21-year-old English student who was, in fact, injured by the very bombing he was suspected of plotting.
Talking Points Memo quickly
debunked the The Post‘s claim that the person being questioned was a suspect. “Honestly, I don’t know where they’re getting their information from, but it didn’t come from us,” a Boston Police Department spokesperson told TPM. The young Saudi national was later revealed to be a witness, not a suspect. The Post never apologized.
“What made them suspect him?”
asks Amy Davidson at The New Yorker. “He was running — so was everyone.”
The police reportedly thought he smelled like explosives; his wounds might have suggested why. He said something about thinking there would be a second bomb — as there was, and often is, to target responders. If that was the reason he gave for running, it was a sensible one. He asked if anyone was dead — a question people were screaming. And he was from Saudi Arabia, which is around where the logic stops. Was it just the way he looked, or did he, in the chaos, maybe call for God with a name that someone found strange? [The New Yorker]

2. A high school track star
Age: 17
The intrepid online sleuths at Reddit had nothing but good intentions when they created a subforum to crowdsource information on the criminals behind the Boston attacks. As my colleague Keith Wagstaff
wrote, “the /r/findbostonbombers subreddit is a mostly harmless rabbit hole of marked photos and amateur conjecture,” but “the problem starts when theories go viral or are adopted by the media.”
Case in point:
This photo of a “suspect” standing next to another man implicated for not doing much more than wearing a backpack. Worse still, the New York Post shamelessly plastered that same image on its front page the next day, along with the guilt-drenched cover line “BAG MEN.”
The young man in question turned out to be 17-year-old Salah Eddin Barhoum, a high school track star who moved to the U.S. four years ago from Morocco. His dream is to one day run in the Olympics.
“I’m not a terrorist… I was just watching the marathon,” Salah
told the Daily Mail. “I was terrified. I have never been in trouble, and I feared for my security.”
At 1.30am I called a friend to take me to the state police — I walked into the lobby and told them I thought I was wanted by the FBI. They didn’t know what to make of it.
I had my papers with me and I gave them my Social Security number so they could check me out.
They didn’t even take me into a private room. They made some calls, then said I was free to go. [Daily Mail]
The internet, ladies and gentleman.

3. A missing student
Age: 22
“Thousands of Reddit users and 4chan people spent the days after the bombing combing through every available photo and frame of video of the site of the bombings, searching for the perpetrators,”
says Alex Pareene at Salon. “And they found a bunch of guys with backpacks.”
One of them was believed to be Sunil Tripathi, a Brown University student from Pennsylvania who has been missing since March 16. Tripathi allegedly left behind all his belongings, as well as a vague note that suggested a possible suicide. 
Says one of his friends:
Having known Sunil for years as a classmate, roommate, and friend, I can honestly say that he was one of the nicest individuals I’ve met at Brown. He has a great sense of humor and got along well with everyone. He loves to bike, play the sax, and talk about philosophy. We all hope that he is safe, wherever he is. [International Business Times]
“Who disappears — causing a well-publicized region-wide search that had already expanded beyond Providence to Boston — a month before carrying out a terrorist attack?” asks Pareene. “Wouldn’t it be smarter to act normal as long as possible, and maybe not do something that gets your picture posted all over television and the Internet before you attempt to plant a bomb in an incredibly public venue?”
Some blogs still picked up the story and ran with it. Tripathi’s name and picture were everywhere. A Facebook page, “Help Us Find Sunil Tripathi,” was soon deleted by his family after it filled up with ugly (and false) accusations.
Tripathi’s whereabouts are still unknown.

4. A mystery man
Age: Unknown
On Thursday night, gunshots rang through the MIT campus in what became a bloody shoot-out after the two actual suspects robbed a 7-Eleven. Twenty-six-year-old police officer Sean Collier was left dead. And somehow, a man named Michael Mulugeta was (falsely) reported to be involved.
The confusion came when hacker group Anonymous
posted a tweet: “Police on scanner identify the names of #BostonMarathon suspects in gunfight, Suspect 1: Mike Mulugeta. Suspect 2: Sunil Tripathi.” It was retweeted nearly 3,200 times. It was also, well, wrong.
It remains unclear who Mulugeta is — or if he even exists.
“The last thing we want to become are reporters for the fugitive,” Clint Van Zandt, former FBI profiler and NBC criminal analyst,
told NBC News. “That’s what I think people who tweet and post have to be careful of in the extreme and worst-case scenario. Are they giving information that would give aid and comfort to a killer? If you ask yourself that question and the answer is no, then go ahead and post it.”
Example of the use of Relative Pronoun in sentence :
  1. Who      :- The man who is sitting in the corner is my friend.
  2. Whom   :- The boy whom we visited is her boyfriend.
  3. Whose   :- The girl whose car was sold will go to study abroad.
  4. Which   :- The filing cabinet, which we purchase last week, is very well built.
  5. That       :- The book that describes about behaviour of animal is expensive.

B.    Contoh Artikel yang terdapat kalimat RELATIVE PRONOUNS (examples of articles that contains relative pronouns)

IS IT DEMOCRACY Napoleon Bonaparte said; “The crown of France was rolling inside the gutter, I simply picked up it, and put on my head”

                IS IT DEMOCRACY
Napoleon  Bonaparte said; “The crown of France was rolling inside the gutter, I simply picked up it, and put on my head”. The religion and caste division amongst Hindu were being exploited by the invaders. British’s sponsored the  policy of  divide and rule while  politicians adopted a policy of the divide and spoil for their narrow gains  in spite of the fact that it may be a threat to the nations unity and integrity of our country.  Now nobody is looking forward to the vast problems of poverty, ignorance and disease.  The divisive it forces of caste & religion imbalances through  strong and resurgent  India.
Battle of Panipat and battle of Plassy were not fought due to such divisive forces on the caste line but they were  conquered by making ourselves slave to our destiny by different dynasty. Excellence and social equality with greater attention to socially disadvantaged minority group  was essentially required to be given pre- dominance to check up global economic scenario annual.  There is no leadership of extraordinary commitment and alertness as in accordance with the changing emergence of technological and intellectual impact on our society, but there is role entrepreneurs invigourous wealth creation through a radical change inn our character .  [1] Let us be confined to a classless society in which there may not  be any appeasement or reservation except the excellence in respect of our performance.  Unfortunately the traitors inside the country has provided still worsted shadow of darkness by an eclipsed sun.  The people of whole country was  suffering from a poignant pain of agony. The universality of which carries  in it a great dignity of consolation we have promulgated  the undesirable elements in our population coupled with corruption, cruelty, callousness and a complete disregard of public welfare, which  is flourishable poison in the air. With confounded speculation  of India’s starvation; a terrorist decade of oligarchy and anarchy having appeasement party politics as antithesis to creativity and potential, which has provided an obstacle to our inherited great stilled splendour intelligence with our super entrepreneurial spirit of cultural heritage to naught with intellectual apathy, I have risen to the occasion with profound bleeding at my heart to fight against compulsive gamble bent upon ascending our invaluable legacy providing to be caricature to our noble democracy. We the India’s having 15%of world population and 54% of illiterate citizens of the world are having only 1.5% of world income going down word trend in the list of exporting country from 16th place to 45 place with less them ½ of world to list traffic after 60 years of independence. Despite best ecological conditions and environment and natural resources we are amongst the 10th corrupt nations of the world. Scam of corruption, like Fodder Scam in Bihar, Harshad Mehta Scam, Cobbler Scam of Maharastra, Ayurvedic Scam in U.P., letter of credit Scam in Assam with 700 cases of corruption pending with C.B.I. is our identity. At least 40,000 criminal cases of kidnapping, murder, rape, gangsterism and Mafia Rule spreading the fear psychosis without having the printed proforma of F.I.R. and charge-sheet are the glorious instances in one State of Bihar, which is spreading the fire of greed and fears psychosis upon its people. About 240 public sectors enterprises by Union Govt. And 700 public sectors by the State Govt, are providing black hole in National Economy. The money guzzlers are extracting an exorbitant prices for Indian doctrinal socialism. The State of mobocracy in the strife of moral decay with facet of indiscipline, corruption and castism divisiveness with communal hatred, linguistic fanaticism, regional fancy and caste loyalty have provoked the conscience of patriotism. About 120 millions cases pending in the different courts without any probable disposal, within a considerable time period may further provide the loss of country’s valuable potential. 25 north country global phenomenon are having only ¼ of world’s population having 70/ of wealth, 80/ of trade, 90/ of industries and 99/ of finest and most advanced research centre are having their vast potential. They started giving  benefit of donation received through begging, but our country’s politicians have set up to regeneration of corruption through these donations. Thus keeping away from realities in allowing to perpetuate the corruption by dishonest opportunity and with calibre are ruling over the nation. State Govt. was spending Rs. 1,11,96,000/- during Miss. Mayawati chief minister regime on the security of V.I.P. [2] every month against whom the allegation of misappropriation of Rs. 5000 crores were levelled in one public interest Litigation which were published in News Paper. This is all just to provide and boost the political career by our politician.
The collusion Govt. of India and Govt. of U.P. having ideologically antagonistic with its alliance is a heterogeneous conglomeration of disparage and disparage interest designed mainly to hedge the power against interest of common citizen. Our thrust with destiny  as boosted by our leaders at the time of independence has now been scattered into pieces, sheltered into the extinction of hopes and abrogated and subjugated with the misfortunate scenario of our prophesier democratic set up of the Country. The doctrinaire ethics of democratic values and conceptual phenomenon of so called socialism and secularism being antithesis to social justice and religious sentiment has further deteriorated the very foundation of our country solidarity amongst the citizens. We have formulated utopian empire which is having no existence. This is on account of our character assassination which is resultant into a wild fire meant for destroying the very fabric of our integrity and existence. Can we claim to enjoy our independence.
Can we protect our nation from such anarchic situation. The answer convey the only recourse to be adopted i.e. the enforceable fundamental duties and strict discipline required to be implemented. Whether the army personnel deployed for protecting the Nation may not be assigned to fulfil the uphill task of providing a check to internal insurgency. [3] Can still we enforce the necessity of maintenance of the strict discipline required to maintain by the Army personnel and not be our leaders, who have taken over the command like a diplomatic monarch in our country. Let us examine some of the drastic problem which has become the root cause of erosion of the traditional values of our culture.
Political parties are gripped to below with the wind and bend with the glass. The collusion Govt. emerged at the state level

[4] The reforms, which Napoleon introduced, were long lasting.

keterangan : 
1. kata relative pronouns yang digunakan WHICH digunakan untuk menjelaskan objek kembali yaitu : a classless society 

2. kata relative pronouns yang digunakan WHOM digunakan untuk menjelaskan objek kembali yaitu : our politician

3. kata relative pronouns yang digunakan WHO digunakan untuk menjelaskan subjek kembali yaitu : the Army personnel

4.  kata relative pronouns yang digunakan WHICH digunakan untuk menjelaskan objek kembali yaitu : the reforms

sumber artikel : http://advocateyogeshsaxena.blogspot.com/2012/05/is-it-democracy-napoleon-bonaparte-said.html

C.      Artikel Menggunakan Relative Pronoun

Health Insurance
By combining or pooling the risks of many people into a single group, insurance can make the financial risks associated with health care more manageable. Experts can reasonably predict the health care costs of a large group, even thought they cannot know in advance how much health care will be required by any given individual. Through insurance, each person who buys converage agrees to pay a share of the group’s tottal losses in exchange for a promise that the group will pay when he or she needs services. Essentially , individuals make reguler payments to the plan rather than having to pay especially large sums at any one time in the even of sudden illnes or injury. In this way,the group as a whole funds expensive treatments for some people who need them.
Fuji  Nurdiani.

D.    Relative pronouns adalah kata ganti yang menunjuk pada kata benda yang mendahuluinya (antecedent) yang berfungsi sebagai penghubung dalam kalimat. Relative pronouns biasa diletakkan di awal dependent clause atau anak kalimat yang menerangkan atau memberikan informasi tambahan kepada independent clause atau main clause.

Kata ganti yang digunakan adalah: who, whom, whose, which, dan that.
- The man who is sitting in the corner is my friend.
- The boy whom we visited is her boyfriend.
- The girl whose car was sold will go to study abroad.
- The filing cabinet, which we purchase last week, is very well built.
- The book that describes about behaviour of animal is expensive.

Kata who, whom, whose, which, dan that pada contoh di atas menunjuk pada kata benda sebelumnya (the man, the boy, the girl, the filling cabinet, the book).

Nouns (kata benda) atau pronouns (kata ganti) seperti the man, the boy, the girl, the filling cabinet, dan the book disebut dengan istilah antecedent.
- Voters whose names begin with the letters M to Z should go to Room 2.
- That photo is a reminder of someone who was very important to me.
- Hands up everyone who would like a drink.
- A mole is an animal that lives underground.
- He was accused of being drunk in charge of a vehicle, which is a serious offence.

Untuk menunjuk pada orang, gunakan relative pronouns: who, whom, whose dan that.
- the man who spoke
- the man that spoke (meskipun pemakaian that juga benar, who lebih disarankan sebagai subject pronoun)
- the man that I saw
- the man whom I saw  (meskipun pemakaian whom juga benar, that lebih disarankan sebagai object pronoun)

Untuk menunjuk pada benda lainnya atau hewan, gunakan relative pronouns: which, that dan whose.
- the cat which was sitting on the mat
- the cat that was sitting on the mat
- the book whose cover was torn
- a book to which I often refer

Ketika menunjuk pada sesuatu benda, of which bisa dipakai untuk menggantikan whose.
- a book the cover of which was torn

Perluasan relative pronouns dengan kata ganti seperti whoever, whomever, whatever dikenal sebagai indefinite relative pronouns (relative pronouns tanpa antecedent).
- The boy will tease whomever he likes.
- She said whatever came to mind.
- Let in whoever comes to me.

Kata what juga dapat digunakan sebagai indefinite relative pronouns, contoh:
- I will tell you what you need to know.
- I know what I like.


Who disebut sebagai subject pronoun dan whom sebagai object pronoun. Hal ini bisa dibandingkan dengan he dan him, they dan them, dsb.
- the man who was there (bandingkan ‘he was there’)
- the man whom I saw (bandingkan ‘I saw him’)

Kata whom lebih sering digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris formal. Dalam penggunaannya sehari-hari, baik dalam bentuk percakapan maupun tulisan, whom biasanya diganti dengan who.
- the man who I saw
- the man who you were speaking to

Whom tidak bisa digantikan oleh who bila sebelumnya didahului oleh preposition.
- the man to whom you were speaking
- They elected Smith chairman, than whom there could have been no better choice.
Biasanya bentuk preposition + whom ini dipakai dalam bahasa Inggris formal.

Indefinite relative pronouns memiliki sifat yang terdapat pada relative pronouns maupun indefinite pronouns. Jenis pronouns ini seperti menunjuk pada suatu kata benda, tetapi orang atau benda yang dimaksud tidak disebutkan dengan jelas.

E.                 Relative pronouns

Relative pronouns adalah kata ganti yang menunjuk pada kata benda yang mendahuluinya (antecedent) yang berfungsi sebagai penghubung dalam kalimat. Relative pronouns biasa diletakkan di awal subordinate clause atau anak kalimat yang menunjukkan relasi terhadap keseluruhan kalimat.

Kata ganti yang digunakan adalah: who, whom, whose, which, dan that.

Lihatlah contoh-contoh ini menunjukkan Relative Clauses terdefinisi dan tidak terdefinisi:

example sentences
S=subject, O=object, P=possessive
- The person who phoned me last night is my teacher.
- The person that phoned me last night is my teacher.
That is preferable
- The car which hit me was yellow.
- The cars that hit me were yellow.
That is preferable
- The person whom I phoned last night is my teacher.
- The people who I phoned last night are my teachers.
- The person that I phoned last night is my teacher.
- The person I phoned last night is my teacher.
Whom is correct but very formal. The relative pronoun is optional.
- The car which I drive is old.
- The car that I drive is old.
- The car I drive is old.
That is preferable to which. The relative pronoun is optional.
- The student whose phone just rang should stand up.
- Students whose parents are wealthy pay extra.

- The police are looking for the car whose driver was masked.
- The police are looking for the car of which the driver was masked.
Of which is usual for things, butwhose is sometimes possible
- Mrs Pratt, who is very kind, is my teacher.

- The car, which was a taxi, exploded.
- The cars, which were taxis, exploded.

- Mrs Pratt, whom I like very much, is my teacher.
- Mr and Mrs Pratt, who I like very much, are my teachers.
Whom is correct but very formal.Who is normal.
- The car, which I was driving at the time, suddenly caught fire.

- My brother, whose phone you just heard, is a doctor.

- The car, whose driver jumped out just before the accident, was completely destroyed.
- The car, the driver of which jumped out just before the accident, was completely destroyed.
Of which is usual for things, butwhose is sometimes possible

* Tidak semua sumber tata bahasa menghitung "bahwa" sebagai kata ganti relatif. 
** Beberapa orang mengklaim bahwa kita tidak dapat menggunakan "bahwa" bagi orang-orang tetapi harus menggunakan "siapa / siapa", tidak ada alasan yang baik untuk klaim seperti itu.

Muhammad Fauzan

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